Nativism, Immigration Restrictions and the Red Scare



Thesis: The Red Scare was a dividing factor in America because it caused people to question their fellow Americans and it caused large-scale panic. Many people were afraid that any communists in America would cause a revolution the like of what happened in Russia, so they would turn people in or ostracize members of the community who were perceived as communists.
NATIVISM:

After the first world war
  • People in America Denounced any foreign "radical ideas", "un-American" lifestyles or commitments.
  • The country prospered economical but Blacks, Catholics Jews and other foreigners suffered immensely.
  • The formation of hate groups rose again (KKK)

The Ku Klux Klan
  • The second KKK was founded by William J. Simmons, an ex-minister.
  • Promoted "white supremacy and intense nativism and even anti-Catholic and anti-Semitism.
  • Controlled politics in many communities, particularly Texas, Oklahoma, Indianna, Oregon, and Maine were under its influence
  • Major Klan leader, David C. Stephenson, was convicted of second degree murder breaking the Klan's power in late 1920's.


IMMIGRATION:
onlywaytohandleit.jpeg






















Laws and Acts/ Restrictions


literacytest.jpegImmigration Act of 1917 (or Asiatic Barred Zone Act)

  • It Barred all immigrants over the age of sixteen who were illiterate


Immigration Act of 1924 ( or Johnson-Reid Act)
  • limited the number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the United States


Literacy tests were given


Emergency Quota Act of 1921

  • Limited the number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 3%
Country or Area of birth
Quota, 1924-1925
Afghanistan
100
Albania
100
Armenia
124
Australia
121
Austria
785
Belgium
512
Bulgaria
100
China
100
Czechoslovakia
3,073
Denmark
2,789
Egypt
100
Finland
170
France
3,954
Germany
51,227
Great Britain and Northern Ireland
34,007
Greece
100
Hungary
473
Iceland
100
India
100
Iraq (Mesopotamia)
100
Irish Free State
28,567
Italy
3,485
Japan
100
Lithuania
344
Netherlands
1,648
New Zealand
100
Norway
6,453
Poland
5,982
Portugal
503
Ruanda and Urundi
100
Rumania
603
Russia, European and Asiatic
2,248
Spain
131
Sweden
9,561
Switzerland
2,081
Yugoslavia
671






RED SCARE

fear that Americans had about a communist revolution occurring on American soil
  • Appeared shortly after the Bolshevik revolution of 1917


Mitchell Palmer
ExplorePAHistory-a0j4v8-a_349.jpg
  • Jan 2 1920
  • Over 30 cities raided at the same time
  • 6,000 to 10,000 suspected communists and anarchists without a trial
  • There wasn't any evidence or search warrants
  • Called the Palmer Raids
  • Helped him to be the Democratic candidate in 1920
  • Thought they would attack on May 1, 1920
  • Coined the term May day
  • He was completely wrong but never apologized to those he accused
















http://www.americanforeignrelations.com/E-N/Nativism-World-war-i-and-the-1920s.html
The Palmer "Red Raids", Terrorism in America, Constitutional Rights Foundation, 2002.